About Molecular Biology

Following are some of the multiple choice questions on the Molecular Biology with answers that will help the students in developing their knowledge.

Molecular Biology MCQ

1. What is a mutation?

  • change the chromosome structure
  • Anything in the environment that can cause a mutation
  • A change in the sequence of bases in DNA or RNA
  • All of above

2. What is transcription?

  • A molecule that contains the genetic code for organisms.
  • The RNA → Protein part of the central dogma
  • The DNA → RNA part of the central dogma of molecular biology
  • The process in which cells make proteins

3. What is translation?

  • The RNA → Protein part of the central dogma
  • The DNA → RNA part of the central dogma of molecular biology
  • The process in which cells make proteins
  • A molecule that contains the genetic code of organisms.

4. What is RNA?

  • A nucleic acid that processes all steps of protein synthesis in all living cells.
  • A molecule that contains the genetic code of organisms.
  • The process in which cells make proteins.
  • A gene that is damaged or changed in a way to alter the genetic message carried by that gene.

5. What is a product of photosynthesis?

  • Glucose
  • Sun Light
  • Water
  • Carbon Dioxide

6. What is the energy source for photosynthesis?

  • Solar Energy
  • Glucose
  • ATP
  • All of above

7. What is a eukaryotic organism?

  • An organism without a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
  • An organism with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
  • An organism with a nucleus but no membrane bound organelles
  • An organism with membrane bound organelles but no nucleus

8. Mode of DNA replication is

  • Conservative and bidirectional
  • Semiconservative and unidirectional
  • Semiconservative and bidirectional
  • Conservative and unidirectional

9. Which of the following processes does not occur in prokaryotes?

  • Transcription
  • Splicing
  • Translation
  • Replication

10. What is a prokaryotic organism?

  • An organism without a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
  • An organism with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
  • An organism with a nucleus but no membrane bound organelles
  • An organism with membrane bound organelles but no nucleus

11. Which enzyme is used in the unwinding of DNA?

  • Ligase
  • Topoisomerase
  • Helicase
  • Exonuclease

12. What are the products of cellular respiration?

  • oxygen and water
  • carbon dioxide and water
  • oxygen and sugar
  • carbon dioxide and sugar

13. What is a product of cellular respiration?

  • Glucose
  • Oxygen
  • Sun Light
  • Carbon Dioxide

14. What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?

  • C6H12O6 + 6H2O --> 6CO2 + 6O2 + Sun Light
  • C6H12O6 + H2O --> CO2 + O2 +ATP
  • 6CO2 + 6O2 + Sun Light --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O
  • 6CO2 + 6H2O + Sun Light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

15. Where in the cell does DNA replication occur?

  • always the cytoplasm
  • always the nucleus
  • in the cytoplasm in eukaryotes and the nucleus in prokaryotes
  • in the cytoplasm in prokaryotes and the nucleus in eukaryotes

16. What is the chemical formula for cellular respiration?

  • C6H12O6 + 6H2O --> 6CO2 + 6O2 + Sun Light
  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O +ATP
  • 6CO2 + 6O2 + Sun Light --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O
  • 6CO2 + 6H2O + Sun Light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + ATP

17. MRNA is

  • used as a template to make protein
  • part of a ribosme
  • a small molecule used by the ribosome and is not made into protein
  • all of the above

18. What does DNA polymerase do?

  • connects sugars and phosphates with weak hydrogen bonds
  • connects sugars and phosphates with strong covalent bonds
  • connects bases with strong hydrogen bonds
  • connects bases with strong covalent bonds

19. How many RNA polymerases are present in a bacterial system?

  • 4
  • 2
  • 1
  • 3

20. The reactants of photosynthesis are

  • sugar and water.
  • sugar and oxygen.
  • carbon dioxide and water.
  • carbon dioxide and oxygen.

21. What type of respiration requires oxygen?

  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic

22. What is the purpose of cellular respiration?

  • to break down food
  • to create energy in the body
  • to release energy from food
  • there is none; it's a waste of time

23. TRNA is

  • used as a template to make protein
  • part of a ribosome
  • a small molecule used by the ribosome and is not made into protein
  • all of the above

24. What are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration?

  • oxygen and lactic acid
  • carbon dioxide and water
  • glucose and oxygen
  • water and glucose

25. What controls what goes in and out of the cell?

  • Nucleus
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cell Organelle
  • Nucleolous

26. How are plant cells and human cells the same?

  • They can produce their own oxygen.
  • They can receive nutrients through the cell wall.
  • They make their own glucose from sunlight during photosynthesis.
  • They use mitochondria to release energy from glucose during cellular respiration.

27. Which best describes how organisms obtain energy from food?

  • Food (Glucose) reacts with water to release energy during photosynthesis.
  • Food (Glucose) reacts with oxygen to release energy (ATP) during cellular respiration.
  • Food (Glucose) reacts with sunlight to release energy during photosynthesis.
  • Food (Glucose) reacts with carbon dioxide to release energy during cellular respiration.

28. RRNA is

  • used as a template to make protein
  • part of a ribosome
  • a small molecule used by the ribosome and is not made into protein
  • all of the above

29. Which best describes the nutrients that are sources of energy for the body?

  • fats and proteins
  • fats and carbohydrates
  • water and carbohydrates
  • Calcium and fiber

30. Proteins are provided by

  • dried beans, peas, and nuts
  • milk and eggs
  • meat, fish, and poultry
  • All choices are correct

31. What are three parts of a DNA nucleotide?

  • Phosphate group
  • Sugar
  • Nitrogenous base
  • All of above

32. What enzyme is responsible for transcription?

  • DNA polymerase
  • RNA polymerase
  • ribosomes
  • nucleolus in the nucleus

33. Where does transcription take place in a cell?

  • always in the nucleus
  • always in the cytoplasm
  • in the nucleus in eukaryotes and the cytoplasm in prokaryotes
  • in the cytoplasm in eukaryotes and the nucleus in prokaryotes

34. What are the 2 functions of DNA polymerase?

  • makes DNA and RNA
  • makes DNA and protein
  • makes DNA and fixes its mistakes
  • makes RNA and protein

35. What are three types of mutagens

  • Radiation
  • Chemicals
  • Infectious agents
  • All of above

36. What are three types of point mutations

  • Silent
  • Missense
  • Nonsense
  • All of above

37. What is the molecule called that mitochondria produce when they respire glucose?

  • ATP
  • ADP
  • DNA
  • 80p

38. Where does cellular respiration take place in the cell?

  • Cell Membrane
  • Nucleus
  • Mitochondria
  • Vacuole

39. What is the energy source for cellular respiration?

  • Solar Energy
  • Glucose
  • Chemical Energy
  • Both A & B

40. What are the three macromolecules?

  • Proteins, Lipids, and Fats
  • Lipids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates
  • Glucose, Carbohydrates, and Lipids
  • Amino Acids, Glucose, Lipids

41. Processing and digesting food uses how much energy for the body?

  • 0.6
  • 0.3
  • 0.75
  • 0.1

42. What is an example of a protein you could add to your plate?

  • Apple
  • Carrots
  • Chicken
  • Olive oil

43. Who was the first to propose indirect interaction between mRNA template and amino acids to produce accurate ordering of amino acid in a polypeptide chain?

  • Paul C. Zamecnic
  • James Watson
  • Francis H. Crick
  • Mahlon B. Hoagland

44. Daily physical activities account for how much energy used in the body?

  • 0.6
  • 0.3
  • 0.75
  • 0.1

45. Which of the following IS NOT one of the 6 categories of nutrients?

  • oils
  • sugars
  • proteins
  • Both A & B

46. What are the 3 main nutrient categories that provide both energy and building materials?

  • lipids
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • All of above

47. Which best explains why some fats are recommended as part of a healthy diet?

  • Fats provide the body with the chemicals necessary for controlling the pH of the blood.
  • Fats act as a catalyst, reacting with the sugars in fruits and vegetables.
  • Fats provide the body and its organs with insulation and protection.
  • None of these

48. Which of the following are basic needs for plants to make food, but not for animals.

  • Water and oxygen
  • Acid rain
  • Sunlight, CO2, and soil
  • Glucose

49. Organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the site of cellular respiration that burns sugar with oxygen to produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water.

  • Chloroplasts
  • Vacuoles
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi Apparatus

50. Following transcription in eukaryotes, the RNA

  • stays in the nucleus
  • is made into mRNA and goes to the cytoplasm
  • goes directly to the cytoplasm without changes
  • goes back to the nucleus for changes

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