About Microbiology

Microorganisms are intertwined into the fabric of our daily lives. Microbes can be found in soil, seawater, and the air, as well as on the human body's internal and external surfaces. Microorganisms are everywhere, but they're often overlooked because they're so common. However, their presence can be beneficial, such as when they ferment sugar into wine and beer, rise bread, flavor cheeses, and produce valuable products such as antibiotics and insulin. It is impossible to overestimate the importance of microorganisms in Earth's ecosystem since they break down animal and plant leftovers into simpler compounds that may be reused by other creatures.

History & Origin

A significant turning point in science was reached in the 17th century when it was discovered that organisms that could not be seen by the naked eye existed and were responsible for decay and disease. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, these creatures were all assumed to be related and therefore the name "microbe" was developed to describe them. As the field of microbiology matured, scientists discovered that bacteria comprise a massive and incredibly varied assemblage


When it comes to microbial life forms such as bacteria and fungus as well as viruses, microbiology is the study of microorganisms. Such creatures and the methods for utilizing and regulating their activity are at the heart of this branch of science.

Types of microorganisms

Most microorganisms fall into one of these broad classifications: bacteria, archaea, algae, fungus (yeasts and molds), protozoa, and viruses.

The study of microorganisms

The study of microorganisms may be classified into two broad, although occasionally overlapping, groups, as is the case in many other disciplines. It is distinct from fundamental microbiology, which focuses on microorganisms' biology, in that applied microbiology focuses on how microbes may be used to accomplish a specific goal.

Following are some of the multiple choice questions on the Microbiology with answers that will help the students in developing their knowledge.

Microbiology MCQ

1. Gram positive bacteria

  • E.coli
  • Lactobacillus sp.
  • Pseudomonas sp.
  • All of the these

2. Which disease is caused by bacteria?

  • Tuberculosis
  • Cancer
  • Ringworm
  • All of above

3. Microbiology is the study of

  • small animals
  • microscopic organisms
  • diseases
  • health

4. Gram staining is an example of

  • Acid fast staining
  • Simple staining
  • Negative staining
  • Differential staining

5. Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an rna primer?

  • enzyme
  • Primase
  • Formulation
  • All of above

6. How do viruses reproduce

  • They take over the living cells machinery
  • They slide in the cell on their own
  • They can reproduce themselves
  • They put themselves in our bloodstream first

7. Are viruses alive ?

  • yes
  • no

8. Expand MMR

  • Measles Mumps Rubella
  • Malaria malaria rhehasus
  • Monkey Month Resists
  • Mango mangi red

9. Bacteria come in all of the following shapes EXCEPT which?

  • spiral
  • rod-like
  • rectangular
  • spherical

10. The bacterium that is most commonly used in genetic engineering is

  • E.coli
  • Klebsiella
  • Bacillus substilus
  • Staphylococcus auerus

11. A slippery outer covering in some bacteria that protects them from phagocytosis by host cells is

  • cell wall
  • capsule
  • peptidoglycan
  • Teichoic acid

12. The primary use of Koch postulates is to

  • Clearly identify and characterize a particular microorganism
  • Isolate microbes from diseased animals
  • demonstrate that disease is caused by microorganisms
  • develop vaccines for specific disease

13. What is ring worm caused by?

  • Virus
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasite

14. Most bacteria are

  • Harmful
  • Helpful
  • Begnin
  • Cancer

15. In electron microscope, what material is used as an objective lens?

  • Magnetic coils
  • Superfine glass
  • Electrons
  • Aluminium foils

16. What is the backbone of DNA made of?

  • Glucose and Nitrogen
  • Deoxyribose and Nitrogen
  • Deoxyribose and Phosphate
  • Deoxyribose and Sulfate

17. Aeromicrobiology refers to

  • Study of living microbes
  • study of Algae
  • Study of living microbes which are suspended in the air
  • none of the above

18. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many differences, but they also share some common features. Which of the following may be found in either type of cell?

  • Golgi bodies
  • mitochondria
  • ribosomes
  • nucleus

19. Why is Taq used in PCR?

  • It is a specific DNA Primer
  • It is a heat stable polymerase
  • It is specific to the target probe
  • It does not need a cofactor

20. What is RFLP used for?

  • Detecting PCR products
  • Amplify nucleic acids
  • Used for Eastern blot
  • DNA fingerprinting

21. How large are viruses ?

  • 100-150 nm
  • 300-600nm
  • 20-200 nm
  • 10-100nm

22. What types of cells can Viruses infect

  • Only bacterial cells
  • Only animal cells
  • Only prokaryotic ones
  • all of them

23. Bacteria do NOT have a cell wall.

True/ False:
  • TRUE

24. Bacteria use appendages such as flagella to move around.

  • TRUE

25. These are the major group of microbes

Check all that apply:
  • viruses
  • fungi
  • algae
  • All of above

26. Fungi are considered to be prokaryotes.

  • TRUE

27. Which of these can be referred to as being "strepto-" in terms of bacterial arrangement?

  • None of these
  • Both A & B
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • alamy stock photo

28. Organisms referred to by both genus and specific epithet are both either:

  • underlined
  • italicized
  • bolded
  • Both A & B

29. Prokaryotes lack:

  • nucleus
  • flagella
  • cilia
  • cell wall

30. ___________ is the scientist who invented the system of nomenclature for microbes in use today.

  • Robert Hooke
  • Francesco Redi
  • Carolus Linnaeus
  • None of the above

31. A tapeworm lives in the intestines of its host. Which example best describes the relationship between the tapeworm and its host?

  • The tapeworm benefits from its host; however, the host is not affected.
  • The tapeworm does not benefit from its host, but the host does benefit.
  • The tapeworm benefits from its host, and the host is negatively affected.
  • All of above

32. Microorganism that reproduces in the cells of other living things.

  • virus
  • bacteria

33. Organism that must live in another living thing in order to survive.

  • virus
  • parasite

34. An organism that lives on or in a host, and causes it harm while it takes its nutrients is called

  • a host
  • a parasite
  • a cell
  • a virus

35. Viruses multiply:

  • By conjungation
  • By taking over a cell's functions
  • By binary fission
  • Both sexually and asexually

36. Immunology is the study of...

  • the immune system
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • All of above

37. Phycology is the study of...

  • fish
  • fungi
  • bacteria
  • algae

38. Mycology is the study of....

  • fungi
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • dogs

39. When a virus invades a living cell, its _______takes over the cell's functions.

  • outer coat
  • genetic material
  • core
  • cytoplasm

40. _______________ are classified by their shape.

  • Bacteria
  • Flagella
  • Protists
  • Paramecium

41. Regarding exotoxins, which of the following is incorrect:

  • Can cause tetanus, diphtheria, and botulism
  • Vaccines are available
  • No Vaccines are available
  • They are heat sensitive

42. Which mechanism(s) allow microbes to avoid host defenses?

  • Creation of an actin tail to propel bacterium
  • Production of IgT proteases
  • Replication
  • All of the above

43. The most common way(s) for microbes to breach anatomical barriers are through:

  • Cuts and Wounds
  • Insects
  • Mucous Membranes
  • All of the Above

44. ___________ indicates viral particles are circulating in the bloodstream.

  • Viremia
  • Toxemia
  • IDKremia
  • Bacteremia

45. The duration of symptoms for Tuberculosis (TB) can be described as:

  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Latent
  • Chronic and/or Latent

46. Normal Microbiota is not beneficial.

  • True
  • False

47. Infection = Illness

  • True
  • False

48. Although many individuals contributed, Louis Pasteur is often given credit for formation of which theory?

  • Miasma
  • Spontaneous Generation
  • Causation
  • Germ

49. In what year did the World Health Organization declare the eradication of smallpox?

  • 1980
  • 1977
  • 1978
  • None of these

50. Which of the following modes of transmission were discussed in class?

  • airborne
  • vector
  • droplet
  • All of above

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