About Ecology

Among the many subfields within ecology are humanities like demography and sociology, as well as ecological concepts like ecosystems and biosphere. As a discipline, ecology studies the interactions between organisms, their environment, and their environment. Many different scales are used to examine this phenomenon: individual organisms, regional populations and biosphere, to name a few.

The major objective of an ecologist is to enhance their knowledge of biological processes, adaptations and habitats, interactions, and biodiversity.

Types of Ecology

  • Population Ecology
  • Landscape Ecology
  • Organismal Ecology
  • Global Ecology
  • Ecosystem Ecology
  • Community Ecology

Importance of Ecology

The following reasons explain the importance of ecology:

Conservation of Environment

Ecology helps to teach us how our activities impact the ecosystem. It demonstrates to the public the full scope of human impact on the environment.

The damage of the land and the ecosystem has been caused by a lack of understanding of ecology. Some species have been driven to extinction or are in grave danger as a result of this trend. There are several examples, such as dinosaurs, white shark, and mammoths. That's why it's important to research the environment and creatures so that we can keep them safe.

Resource Allocation

The understanding of how organisms interact with their environment can help us determine what resources they need to thrive. These resources have become scarce and depleted due to a lack of ecological awareness, resulting in competition.

Energy Conservation

Energy is a necessity for all living things in order to thrive and develop. Light, food, and radiation are just a few of the resources that are being overused due to a lack of ecological knowledge.

Preventing excessive waste of energy resources is a major benefit of having a thorough understanding of ecological requirements.


Ecology supports species harmony and the adoption of a way of life that protect the ecology of life's ecosystems.

Following are some of the multiple choice questions on the Ecology with answers that will help the students in developing their knowledge.

Ecology MCQ

1. A collection of organisms that belong to different populations but all live in the same area and interact with one another.

  • Population
  • Ecosystem
  • Community
  • Ecosphere

2. Nitrogen fixation processes nitrogen from which of the following sources?

  • lightning
  • fertilizers
  • dead plants
  • atmosphere

3. Which event would not cause secondary succession?

  • forest fire
  • flooding of a valley
  • volcanic lava flow
  • tornado

4. Which is an example of where primary succession could occur?

  • a glacier melts and exposes new rocks
  • natural fire burns a prairie
  • a corn field is abandoned and left to overgrow
  • flood covers a piece of land

5. What would be a good example of a primary consumer?

  • carnivore
  • detrivore
  • decomposer
  • herbivore

6. Which is not a biome found in North America?

  • Mojave Desert
  • Grasslands of the Great Plains
  • Everglades / Coastal Plain
  • Tropical Rain Forest 

7. Individuals that can breed with one another make up a

  • species
  • population
  • community
  • ecosystem

8. What is the role of fungi in food webs?

  • scavenger
  • bacteria
  • producer
  • decomposer

9. Which of these are negative consequences of farming?

  • Nitrogen/Fertilizer run off causing an algae bloom
  • Loss of habitat for animal homes
  • Loss of territory for animals to hunt
  • All of above

10. Photosynthesis will most likely appear in which of these cycles?

  • Nitrogen
  • Carbon
  • Water
  • All of above

11. Nitrogen makes up _____ percent of the atmosphere.

  • 66%
  • 78%
  • 90%
  • none of the above

12. Which biome, because of its climate and amount of rainfall, has the largest number of species of plants and animals?

  • Tundra
  • Pineforest
  • Desert
  • Rainforest

13. A lion that eats a zebra that eats grass is a

  • secondary consumer
  • primary consumer
  • tertiary consumer
  • quaternary consumer

14. A carbon "sink" is best described as:

  • a reservoir that readily releases carbon to another reservoir
  • a carbon reservoir that stores more carbon that it is releasing
  • something that causes carbon to leak out to the atmosphere
  • a carbon reservoir that is releasing more carbon than it is taking in

15. Introduced species disrupt ecosystems because they are a/an

  • Keystone Species
  • Endemic Species
  • Invasive Species
  • Native Species

16. Which of these is not a characteristic share by all living things

  • Growth and Development
  • Reproduction
  • Movement
  • Homeostatis 

17. The air we breathe is only ____% oxygen.

  • 10
  • 21
  • 78
  • 90

18. Organisms that obtains its energy from abiotic sources, such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals

  • Autotroph
  • Heterotroph
  • Omnivore
  • Carnivore

19. What would happen within a few months after the formation of a volcanic island?

  • pioneer species would grow
  • no pioneer species would grow
  • trees and large plants would grow
  • rich, organic soil would be present

20. Mistletoe grows and spreads on trees, taking their nutrients:

  • predation
  • parasitism
  • mutualism
  • commensalism

21. Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant gives of purified water to be evaporated.

  • precipitation
  • concentration
  • transpiration
  • evaporation

22. The nonliving aspects of an ecosystem.

  • Abiotic factors
  • Biotic factors

23. In the Article "The Critical Link", breaking down barriers that deny women access to health care, family planning, education, land ownership, employment and credit is linked to ________

  • Higher Mortality Rate
  • Higher Fertility Rate
  • Lower Fertility Rate
  • Lower Mortality Rate

24. Soil and sediments is created by the physical and chemical ____________ of igneous rock.

  • Destabilization 
  • Expansion
  • Weathering 
  • Sublimation 

25. An underground reservoir of water is known as ______

  • An Estuary 
  • An Aquifer
  • Sublimation 
  • Permafrost

26. Approximately 90 percent of energy iconsumed by an organism is lost to ___

  • Growth
  • Inefficiencies in its metabolism 
  • Repairing cells
  • Carbon dioxide

27. An important attribute of a K-strategist species is _____

  • Nurture their young
  • Exponential Growth
  • Opportunistic
  • Relatively low body mass

28. What is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a biological community?

  • energy path
  • food web
  • trophic level
  • food pyramid

29. What is an ecological model of the relationships that form a network of complex interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers?

  • food web
  • an ecosystem
  • food chain
  • a population

30. Territorial behaviors can be...

  • Screaming/barking.
  • Marking an area (rubbing antlers on trees, urinating).
  • Fighting over mates.
  • Both A & B

31. Which of these are ways that animals will use to conserve energy during the winter?

  • Grow more fur
  • Hibernate
  • Take a long trip to find food (migrate)
  • Find a cabin with a fire place

32. A population is...

  • All of the members of a species in the same area.
  • All of the different species in the same area.
  • All of the Biotic and Abiotic factors in an area.
  • none of the above

33. An ecosystem is...

  • All of the members of a species in the same area.
  • All of the different species in the same area.
  • All of the Biotic and Abiotic factors in an area.
  • none of the above

34. When members of a population work together it is called...

  • Competition
  • Cooperation
  • Mutualism
  • All of above

35. Evaporation and Transpiration will most likely appear in which of these cycles?

  • Nitrogen
  • Carbon
  • Water
  • Both A & B

36. Which organisms have the ability to use the sun's energy to PRODUCE glucose?

  • Snakes/Mice
  • Grass/ Trees
  • Hawks/Eagles
  • Fungi/Bacteria

37. Which organisms convert Nitrogen in the atmosphere to a usable for for plants and animals?

  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Bacteria
  • Converters

38. Which of these is the main source of energy on Earth?

  • The Sun
  • Producers/Plants
  • Consumers/Animals
  • Decomposers/Fungi

39. Which of these is the foundation of the Food Web and Energy Pyramid?

  • Photosynthesis
  • Plants
  • Decomposers
  • Omnivores

40. A collection of organisms that make up a community as well as all of the nonliving aspects of the environment.

  • Population
  • Community
  • Habitat
  • Ecosystem

41. plants that convert energy from the sun

  • decomposer
  • primary consumer
  • secondary consumer
  • producer

42. Organisms that breaks down and absorbs nutrients from dead organisms

  • consumer
  • trophic level
  • decomposer
  • species

43. Study of interactions between organisms and their environment

  • niche
  • community 
  • ecology
  • ecosystem

44. A graphic illustration that shows each trophic level and the amount of useable energy contained within.

  • Food chain
  • Food web
  • Energy Pyramid
  • All of these

45. As you move upward, from level to level, in an energy pyramid, energy _____.

  • increases
  • decreases
  • stays the same
  • increases exponentially

46. The amount of energy that usually transfers from one trophic level to the next...

  • 10%
  • 20%
  • 80%
  • 50%

47. An illustration that uses arrows to show the MANY possible directions in which matter and energy can pass through the organisms in an ecosystem.

  • Food chain
  • Food web
  • Energy Pyramid
  • Succession Map

48. The living portions of the ecosystem.

  • Biotic factors
  • Abiotic factors

49. Which one is not a consumer?

  • anemone 
  • bear
  • shark
  • vulture

50. What does every food chain start with? (Even if it's not drawn or written there!)

  • producers
  • sun
  • consumer
  • decomposers

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