About Earth Science

The overarching goal of Earth science is to gain an understanding of Earth's existing features and past evolution and to put that understanding to good use for humans. This means that a scientist's primary goal in his or her field is to collect data and make hypotheses to explain the planet's features and evolution, as well as devise methods of comparing the relative merits of competing hypotheses. It's via this process that the most logical, palatable, and long-lasting concepts are generated.

Definition

The study of the solid Earth, its oceans, and the air that encircles it are known as Earth sciences. Geology, hydrology, and atmospheric science are all covered.

There have been four and a half billion years of biotic evolution that have been studied in Earth science.

Because of this, understanding these occurrences is vital to the survival of life on Earth.

More about Earth Science!

Besides the surface of the solid Earth, the physical environment in which people live comprises not only the ground under it, but also the ocean and air above it. Demand for resources, natural disaster losses as well as environmental pollution are growing as the world population continues to grow. We can only continue to live if we have a thorough scientific grasp of the interconnections between the Earth's crust, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. Where these two conditions meet, life thrives or dies on the surface of the Earth

Following are some of the multiple choice questions on the Earth Science with answers that will help the students in developing their knowledge.

Earth Science MCQ

1. What is a renewable resource?

  • A resource that can be replaced or recycled.
  • A resource that will not run out.
  • A resource that cannot be replaced at all, or cannot be replaced as fast as people use it.
  • None of these

2. What is an inexhaustible resource?

  • A resource that can be replaced or recycled.
  • A resource that will not run out.
  • A resource that cannot be replaced at all, or cannot be replaced as fast as people use it.
  • None of these

3. The Hawaiian Islands were formed from volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean. Was this a fast process or a slow process?

  • fast
  • slow

4. The second layer of the earth goes down 1800 miles. It is called the

  • crust
  • outer core
  • inner core
  • mantle

5. A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a scientific question is called a _____ .

  • prediction
  • hypothesis
  • theory
  • law

6. What are the 3 major types of rocks?

  • Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic, Igneous, Cementation
  • Brown, Red, Gray
  • Streak, Hardness, Breakage

7. How is it possible for new crust to be formed without increasing the surface area of the Earth?

  • Crust is destroyed at the same time it is created
  • New crust is underwater where it sinks
  • New crust breaks more easily than old crust
  • none of the above

8. Cracks in the plates of the Earth

  • faults
  • minerals
  • sand
  • plate tectonics

9. What option shows an example of a renewable and nonrenewable natural resources?

  • trees and solar energy
  • plants and oxygen
  • water and natural gas
  • All of above

10. The movement of weathered rock and soil

  • erosion
  • rock cycle
  • mantle
  • weathering

11. Soil made up of large grains

  • cast
  • sand
  • igneous rock
  • mold

12. Why do plates move?

  • Convection currents in the mantle cause plates to move.
  • The outer core spins
  • The inner core is magnetic
  • The plates are floating on an ocean

13. The biosphere and the geosphere interact by...

  • Trees roots cracking and breaking down rocks
  • Plants growing in soil
  • Volcano erupting and covering plants and animals
  • All of above

14. We can help the Earth by...

  • planting trees.
  • recycling
  • using solar and wind energy and other renewable resources
  • All of above

15. The outermost layer of the earth is about 3 to 30 miles thick. It is called the

  • mantle
  • crust
  • outer core
  • inner core

16. Oldham found the earth's core when he saw that seismic waves from ___________ didn't go straight through the center of the earth.

  • tidal waves
  • earthquakes
  • mountains
  • ocean floors

17. Rock that forms when sediment from older rocks get pressed and cemented together.

  • Sedimentary Rock
  • Metamorphic Rock
  • Igneous Rock
  • None of these

18. Which of these can rapidly affect Earth’s surface?

  • earthquakes
  • annual rainfall
  • sediment deposits
  • frozen precipitation

19. Wind, water, and ice breaking down rock is called

  • Erosion
  • Deposition
  • Compaction
  • Weathering

20. What is a non-renewable resource?

  • A resource that can be replaced or recycled.
  • A resource that will not run out.
  • A resource that cannot be replaced at all, or cannot be replaced as fast as people use it.
  • All of above

21. In the erosion lab, what caused an increase in weathering, erosion, and deposition?

  • increased water supply
  • increased slope
  • both increased water supply and increased slope
  • neither - the weathering, erosion, and deposition stayed the same

22. Which of the following is the name of the ancient supercontinent formed 28 Million Years ago.

  • Pangea
  • Gondwanda
  • Laurasia
  • Neverland

23. A divergent boundary occurs when plates ....

  • Pull apart
  • Come together
  • Slide past each other
  • subducting

24. You are planning to buy a home along a river. You want to make sure that your home is safe from flooding and erosion. Which home should you buy?

  • A house on land that is level with the river with lots of pretty flowers.
  • A house on rocky, gently sloping land away from the river.
  • A house at the top of a steep cliff that is made of sandy soil.
  • All of above

25. Farmers often have trouble with their topsoil washing away during times of heavy rainfall. What could they do to keep the soil from washing away or eroding?

  • Try to create a place for the water to run off.
  • Plant crops in valleys rather than on hills.
  • Keep pigs in the field.
  • Both A & B

26. In a drought, farmers often have problems with their topsoil blowing away when it gets really dry. What could farmers do to keep the lightweight, dry soil from blowing away or eroding?

  • Plant the seeds farther apart.
  • Surround the fields with natural barriers, such as trees to block the wind.
  • Keep cows in the field.
  • Both A & B

27. Organic matter is a main part of soil. What is the other main part of soil?

  • worms
  • dirt
  • water
  • inorganic matter

28. The land feature formed when sediment is deposited at the mouth of a river is called a(n) ____________.

  • beach
  • dune
  • canyon
  • delta

29. The type of plate boundary where two plates come together is a .....

  • Convergent Boundary
  • Divergent Boundary
  • Transform Boundary
  • Plate Boundary

30. In the erosion lab, the larger, heavier sediments were generally deposited in the canyon and alluvial fan. Why did this happen?

  • the sediments were able to flow a long distance
  • the sediments couldn't be carried as far

31. Cause: Erosion of land on an inland farm.

  • Effect: Waves erode the shoreline and carry grains of sand away. People can use sandbags to stop erosion along the coast.
  • Effect: Rain can wash away the topsoil, which is the soil with the most nutrients for plants. Farmers can slow erosion by planting trees around their fields. Their roots will help keep the soil in place.
  • There is no effect of erosion on an inland farm.
  • none of the above

32. In the rock cycle, what causes metamorphic rock to form?

  • red, hot magma
  • heat and pressure
  • erosion
  • wind

33. In the rock cycle, what causes sedimentary rock to form?

  • compaction and cementation
  • melting
  • heat and pressure
  • red, hot magma

34. In the rock cycle, what causes igneous rock to form?

  • heat and pressure
  • weathering and erosion
  • tectonic plates
  • the cooling of magma

35. Mount Everest grows 2 inches per year as the tectonic plates below it move toward each other. Which of Earth's processes causes this?

  • weathering
  • Earth crust movement
  • land mass motion
  • erosion and deposition

36. After a very heavy rain, a large amount of Earth breaks loose on a hillside. Which of Earth's processes caused this?

  • glacier movement
  • weathering
  • land mass motion
  • volcanic eruptions

37. Sand dunes in the Middle East are created when the wind moves sand from deserts to new places. The sand being moved to a new location is an example of which of Earth's processes?

  • erosion and deposition
  • glacier movement
  • Earth crust movement
  • land mass motion

38. In the erosion lab, the smaller and lighter sediments, such as clay and silt, were generally deposited downstream in the basin. Why did this happen?

  • the sediments were able to flow a long distance
  • the sediments couldn't be carried as far

39. The Hawaiian Islands were formed as a result of _____________.

  • deposition
  • glaciers
  • hurricanes
  • volcanic activity

40. Hurricanes can be harmful.

  • True, rain and storm surges can cause flooding. Strong winds can destroy homes and other buildings.
  • False, hurricanes are not harmful.

41. Hurricanes can be helpful.

  • True, hurricanes provide a lot of rain that keeps wells flowing. They may also remove non-native plant species from the ground so native species have room to grow.
  • False, hurricanes cannot be helpful.

42. Complete the statement: 1.______________ breaks rock down into tiny particles (sediment). Over time, 2.__________________, along with particles of organic material, are formed. The top layers 3.____________ on the bottom layers, forming sedimentary rocks.

  • Weathering 2. many layers of particles 3. press
  • Many layers of particles 2.press 3.weathering
  • Weathering 2. press 3. many layers of particles
  • none of the above

43. Cause: Erosion of land next to the ocean.

  • Effect: Waves erode the shoreline and carry grains of sand away. People can use sandbags to stop erosion along the coast.
  • Effect: Rain can wash away the topsoil, which is the soil with the most nutrients for plants. Farmers can slow erosion by planting trees around their fields. Their roots will help keep the soil in place.
  • There is no effect of erosion on land next to the ocean.
  • none of the above

44. Rock once melted, cooled and hardened

  • metamorphic rock
  • sedimentary rock
  • fossils
  • igneous rock

45. A landslide occurs after a flash flood's flowing water caused large portions of the riverbank to be washed away. Was the land impacted by a constructive force or a destructive force?

  • constructive force
  • destructive force

46. Physical weathering...

  • is when only the size of the rock changes.
  • is when nothing changes.
  • is when rock is broken into smaller pieces, and the material that makes up the rock or soil also changes.
  • none of the above

47. When water is warmed it evaporates and then cooled and condenses, it then will eventually...

  • evaporate into space.
  • become a cloud.
  • melt.
  • fall as precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail).

48. Chemical weathering...

  • is when rock is broken into smaller pieces, and the material that makes up the rock or soil also changes.
  • is when only the size of the rocks is changed.
  • is when nothing changes.
  • All of above

49. Process by which sediments are dropped by erosion, such as water dropping seashells

  • weathering
  • erosion
  • rock cycle
  • deposition

50. Result of water, wind, and ice breaking up rocks

  • erosion
  • igneous rocks
  • soil
  • sediment

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